Careers in Contemporary Writing and Production



Composers create music, either as instrumental pieces or as pieces that include lyrics. In addition to stand-alone music, a composer might score music to accompany a film, television show, theatrical performance, commercial, video game, art installation, or other visual media, such as web content. This work may include scoring as well as songwriting. The composer’s role is often to provide a dramatic underscore, but composers have also created popular soundtracks that stand on their own. Required skills include music notation, sight-reading, active listening, critical thinking, creativity, and an awareness of both music history and current trends.

Electronic Composer (Film, Television, Theater, and Multimedia)

The composer in the electronic field has a particular specialty in using computer and MIDI technology throughout the entire composing and arranging process. The electronic composer may compose for a specific recording situation—such as film/TV composers who score/compose to enhance visual media—or a live performance situation, such as composers who create for live theater, music, dance, or art. This work may include producing MIDI mock-ups, which allow a director or executive producer to hear the compositions before the recording or performance process commences. For the electronic composer, knowledge of audio editing software is a must, along with the ability to deliver results in fast-paced environments.


An arranger provides arrangements of a musical composition to be performed by an artist, band, orchestra, or electronic composer. The arranger determines the voicing, instrumentation, harmonic structure, rhythm, tempo, and other aspects of a song or composition based on the artist, producer, director, or conductor’s specifications. The arranger’s work may then surface as part of a live or recorded performance by an artist, band, orchestra, or electronic composer in settings such as concert halls, films, television shows, video games, commercials, art installations, web content, or other visual media. An arranger should be trained in music theory, orchestration, composition, and harmony, and should have experience as a copyist and as a composer or songwriter, as well as experience playing one or more instruments.


The producer plays a variety of roles depending on whether they are working in music, film, theater, dance, video games, or other media. In the music industry, producers often work with recording artists and record labels to create songs and albums for release. The music producer supervises all aspects of the recording process—including contracting session players and overseeing the recording budget—and may also help the artist select songs to be recorded. Preferably, a producer should be an excellent musician with a lot of performance experience. In addition to possessing a great depth of knowledge in music, a producer should hold extensive technical knowledge of recording equipment, engineering, and acoustics. A producer must also demonstrate creativity and excellent interpersonal skills.

“Ultimately, what you are creating is not just music, but the experience as a whole.”
- Kazuma Jinnouchi


An orchestrator is responsible for writing or transposing music based on a composer’s work or draft such that an ensemble or individual can perform it. Often, an orchestrator will transpose music from one instrument, voice, or electronic sound to another in order to accommodate the needs of a particular instrument, musician, group, or style. In film music scoring sessions, the orchestrator may also be called upon to conduct.

Jingle Writer

Jingle writers are songwriters/composers/lyricists who specialize in writing music for radio and television commercials. They are responsible for representing their client musically as directed. They must be skilled in all styles, be strong musical arrangers, and be able to compose well for a very short form.


Performing songwriters create and perform their own music, while other songwriters create music to be performed by other parties. Songwriters typically write both music and lyrics, often working in collaboration with other composers and/or lyricists. Some songwriters work as a solo act or as the leader of a group featuring their original material, while some more often co-write in coordination with other songwriters. Successful songwriters exhibit creativity and knowledge in composition, music history, and market trends.


A transcriber notates musical performances onto a score from a recorded performance.


A conductor leads an orchestra or ensemble in performance. This may include selecting the repertoire, preparing the musicians via rehearsals, and all other business affairs related to leading an orchestra. In a film scoring setting, the conductor is typically able to hear comments from the studio control room and may incorporate that feedback into the session so as to best direct the musicians/orchestra, and the film score composer or orchestrator often occupies this conducting role as well. The conductor should have strong ability on an instrument (most often, piano), in-depth musical knowledge, the ability to sight-read, and great interpersonal and leadership skills in working with composers, players, editors, orchestrators, and copyists.

Music Copyist

A music copyist translates a complete score into written individual parts in order for the musicians who will be performing the score to be ready to perform and/or record the music. A music copyist must have strong notation and transposition skills and training in music theory. Successful copyists deliver neat and accurate work with painstaking attention to detail.